Technical Papers
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Technical Papers

Technical papers are a deeper dive into the technical aspects of temperature measurement. Topics include troubleshooting, sensor selection, calibration, maintenance, and a more complete understanding of temperature measurement devices and techniques.  

As Found Calibration Data

One of the most important pieces of information that can be obtained from calibrating a Secondary Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SSPRT) is the As Found data for the thermometer.

Best Practices for PRT Installation to Optimize Process Efficiency

When selecting a PRT, also known as an RTD, several factors must be considered to ensure an accurate and repeatable temperature measurement. We call them the 4 P’S: performance, protection, placement, price, and service life.

Errors Related to Cable Resistance Imbalance in Three Wire RTDs

There are multiple sources of error that can impact the accuracy of an RTD measurement. The cable incorporated into the sensor can cause a significant error. In this paper, an analysis of cable resistance imbalance in three-wire resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) is presented with emphasis on the errors that can result in the temperature measurement.

Developing a Periodic Performance Verification Program

As with most high-accuracy measurement devices, it is prudent to make periodic accuracy performance checks of an RTD against a known standard/specification.

SWE Time Response Comparison – Part 1

Comparing the performance of a 6mm sensor to a 1/4″ sensor when used in an SWE thermowell

SWE Time Response Comparison – Part 2

A continuation of part-1 with a deeper look into the limitations of testing 

Error Sources, Interchangeability – Part-1

Interchangeability refers to the “closeness of agreement” in the resistance vs temperature (R vs T) relationship of a PRT to a pre-defined nominal R vs T relationship.

Error Sources, Insulation Resistance – Part-2

Insulation Resistance (IR) refers to the electrical resistance between the sensing circuit and the metallic sheath of a PRT

Error Sources, Stability – Part-3

Stability refers to the ability of a PRT to maintain its’ Resistance vs. Temperature (R vs. T) relationship over time as a result of thermal exposure.

Error Codes, Repeatability – Part-4

Repeatability refers to the ability of a PRT to maintain its Resistance vs. Temperature (R vs. T) relationship when measured under the same conditions* after experiencing thermal cycling throughout a specified temperature range.

Error Sources, Hysteresis – Part-5

In PRTs, thermal hysteresis results in a difference in resistance at a given temperature based on the thermal history to which the PRT was exposed.

Triple Point of Water Ice Bath Calibration

The Resistance of a Secondary Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SSPRT) at the Triple Point of Water (TPW) is one of the most important performance criteria for proper monitoring and use of the thermometer.

Installing Surface Mount RTDs

There are a variety of platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) designed for measuring surface temperature. The accuracy of the temperature measurement that can be achieved with any of these sensors is highly dependent on the installation method and conditions to which the sensor will be exposed

True Lifecycle Cost of a Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)

In this paper, we will examine RTD selection criteria for accuracy and operating performance that best aligns with the process conditions, expectations, and installation, for the lowest life-cycle cost.

Matching PRT to Transmitter

One method to eliminate 85% of the interchangeability error in a measurement system is to use a PRT in conjunction with a transmitter that has matching capability.

Measurement Performance within an Elbow Thermowell

The Burns Sanitary Well Elbow (SWE) was designed to reduce the mass around the sensing element while still ensuring the proper sensor immersion required for an accurate measurement. This evaluation will investigate the impact of sensor construction on-time response when a sensor is used with a typical SWE.

Time Response Testing of Surface Sensors

The following test method defines the apparatus and methods used at Burns Engineering to provide a comparison across a range of surface sensor designs.

Understanding Calibration Uncertainties

This guide provides an abbreviated description of the methodology used to calculate the calibration uncertainties that are included on the calibration reports provided by Burns Engineering.

Approximating the TPW Presentation

Presentation given to NCSLI at the 2008 Workshop & Symposium in Orlando, FL

Best Practices for RTD Installation

RTD installation approach will influence the accuracy of the measurement.  This technical paper offers practical insights to minimizing the potential accuracy robbing influences.


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